compelling arguments This is a topic that many people are looking for. thetruthaboutdow.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, thetruthaboutdow.org would like to introduce to you What is a “STRONG” argument? . Following along are instructions in the video below:
“I mentioned nin the instruction to the previous tutorial nthere are two importantly different ways ways in which an nargument can satisfy the logic. Condition one way is if the is valid another way is if the nargument is strong. We ve talked about validity now let s talk about strength here s an argument. All humans have ndna the molecule that carries the genetic ninformation that you inherit from your parents.
Pat is human therefore. Pat has dna. This is a valid argument. If the premises are ntrue the conclusion can t possibly be false now take a look nat this argument.
50 of humans are female pat is human therefore pat is female. The percentage isn t exact but we re not interested in nhearing. Whether the premises are actually true we re interested in nwhether. If they were true the conclusion would follow in this case.
The nanswer is clearly no knowing that pat is human ndoes. N t give us any good reason to think that he nor. She is female. This is an example of an nargument that does not satisfy the logic.
Condition now take a look nat. This argument..
90 of humans are right handed pat is human therefore. Pat is right handed this argument is different in this case. The premises nmake it very likely 90 likely that the nconclusion is true they don t guarantee nthat pat is right handed. But we might still nwant to say that they provide good reasons to think nthat pat is right handed and if that s the ncase then we should say that this argument satisfies nthe logic condition because it has the property that if all nthe premises are true then they give us good reason nto.
Believe the conclusion this difference is nwhat the distinction between weak and strong narguments amounts to the argument on nthe left is what we call a logically weak argument. It does not satisfy nthe logic. Condition and so it can t be na good argument. The argument on the write is na logically strong argument.
It does satisfy the nlogic condition. So it can be a good argument. This is what distinguishes nthese two arguments. But note what they nhave in common they re both logically invalid in a valid argument.
If nthe premises are true the conclusion can t npossibly be false. But neither of these arguments nguarantees certainty. They re both nfallible inferences. Even if the premises are ntrue you could still be wrong about the conclusion.
But the difference is nthat in a strong argument. The premises make the conclusion nvery likely to be true weak argument..
Doesn t neven give us this now these examples immediately nraise an important question how strong does. The inference nhave to be for the argument to satisfy the logic ncondition to qualify as a strong argument or put another way nwith. What probability must the conclusion that nfollow from the premises for the argument to nqualify as strong 50 is clearly too weak 90 is clearly strong enough. But where s the cutoff what s the threshold nthat the strength of the logical.
Ninference has to meet to count as satisfying nthe logic condition well it turns out that nthere is no principled answer to this question. The distinction between nvalid and invalid arguments is a sharp. One every argument is neither valid or invalid. There are no ndegrees of validity validity is like pregnancy.
You can t be almost pregnant. Nor. A little bit pregnant. The distinction between nstrong and weak arguments on the other hand is na matter of degree.
It does make sense to nsay that an argument is very strong or moderately nstrong or moderately weak or very weak. But the threshold between nweak and strong arguments isn t fixed or nspecified by logic. It is in fact a conventional nchoice that we make we decide when the premises nprovide sufficient evidence or reason to justify naccepting the conclusion. There are no formal nprinciples of logic that make this decision for us.
This is actually a big topic. It needs a lot more space..
Nto properly discuss and it really nbelongs in a course on inductive and nscientific reasoning. But there are some ncommon argument forms that people generally recognized nas valid. Strong or weak. That are helpful to know here are some simple nargument forms that recognized as valid nstrong and weak respectively.
The forms are identical. Except nfor. The highlighted words all a are b. Most na are b.
Almost all a are b. Some. A are b. An example of a valid nargument of this form is all actors are robots tom is an actor therefore tom is a robot we ve seen this one before but if we change all to most nwe get an invalid.
But strong argument. Most actors are robots tom is an actor therefore tom is a robot the conclusion doesn t nfollow with certainty. But we re stipulating nhere that most means enough to make it nreasonable to believe the conclusion. If we switch from nmost to some like so we get a weak argument.
Some actors are robots doesn t neven guarantee. 50 50 odds some just means at least none actor is a robot these definitions summarize nwhat..
We ve seen so far validity strength and nweakness are logical properties of arguments. They characterize the nlogical relationship between the premises nand the conclusion with valid arguments nthe conclusion follows with certainty. It s impossible for nthe premises to be true and the conclusion false with strong arguments. It s npossible for the conclusion to be false.
But it s unlikely. The conclusion follows nwith high probability with weak arguments nthe. Conclusion isn t even likely nor highly probable doesn t necessarily mean nthat. It s unlikely either or that the conclusion has a nvery low probability of being true it just means that the npremises don t give us good enough reason to think nthe.
Conclusion is true and finally both valid nand strong arguments. Satisfy the logic. Condition nfor. An argument to be good weak arguments fail to nsatisfy the large condition.
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“http://www.criticalthinkeracademy.comrnrnA sample video from the video tutorial course titled “Basic Concepts in Logic and Argumentation”. You can preview and purchase the full course at the web link above.rnrnTable of ContentsrnrnPart 1: What is an Argument?rn1.1 Definition of an argumentrn1.2 Definition of a claim, or statementrn1.3 Definition of a good argument (I)rn1.4 Identifying premises and conclusionsrnrnPart 2: What is a Good Argument?rn2.1 The truth conditionrn2.2 The logic conditionrn2.3 Valid vs invalid argumentsrn2.4 Strong vs weak argumentsrn2.5 Definition of a good argument (II)rnrnPart 3: Deductive versus Inductive Argumentsrn3.1 Deduction and valid reasoningrn3.2 Induction and invalid reasoningrn3.3 Induction and scientific reasoning”,
argument, critical thinking, logic, strong argument